Much research documented the influence of music on various behaviors, including substance use and delinquency. Yet, less is known about its influences on dimensions that are crucial for behavioral outcomes, namely beliefs and attitudes. In this study, we reviewed and meta-analyzed the literature about music effects on beliefs (n = 82, published 1972–2021) by mapping the theoretical and methodological features of this literature, focusing on the effect size of various characteristics (e.g., age, design) and on open scientific practices. Results indicate a relationship between exposure to music and music-consistent beliefs, with heterogeneity related to the type of beliefs, modality of exposure, designs, and sample characteristics. We conclude by evaluating this literature and reflecting upon future opportunities in this area of research.